(PDF) Т.М. ПРИГОРОВСКАЯlibrary.miit.ru/methodics/2304.pdf · 2016. 10. 11. · The letteef, v, p, 6, s, z, denote voiced sounds between 2 vowels (hlaford) and between a vowel - DOKUMEN.TIPS (2023)

  • Кафедра «Лингвистика»


    History of the English Language


    Методические указания для студентов специальности «Перевод ипереводоведение»

  • Кафедра «Лингвистика»


    Т.М. ПРИГОРОВСКАЯПригоровская Т.М. уч.2 Histom of EnglishLanguage OLD ENGLISH 05 Утверждено

    редакционно-издательским советом университета

    History of the English Language


    Методические указания для студентов специальности «Переводипереводоведение»

  • УДК 42 П 75

    Пригоровская Т.М. History of the English Language. Old English:методические указания. - M.: МИИТ, 2005. - 50 с.

    Методические указания предназначены для студентов высших учебныхзаведений для лингвистических специальностей, в том числе дляспециальности «Перевод и переводоведение».

    Работа содержит краткое изложение основных особенностейдревнеанглийского языка в области фонетического строя, словарногосостава и грамматического строя. К этому разделу работы приложенсписок некоторых лингвистических терминов и даются контрольныезадания (вопросы). Вторая часть включает отрывок (образец)древнеанглийского текста и образец анализа таких текстов. Студентамдается задание проанализировать оставшуюся часть текста. К этойчасти дается краткий словарь.

    © Московский государственный университет путей сообщения (МИИТ),2005

  • History of the English Language is divided into 3 periods:Old

    English (O.E.), Middle English (M.E.) and Modem English. The O.Eperiod

    begins about 700 AD (the time to which the earliest writings inEnglish

    belong) and lasts till about 1100 (the year 1066 is the year ofthe Norman

    Conquest). The middle English period lasts since 1100 till aboutthe end of the

    XV century (in 1485 the Wars of the Red and White Roses came toan end, in

    1475 printing was introduced in Britain). The years 1100 and1500 can not be

    taken literally. There are conventional.

    The Old English Period

    Phonetic Structure


    In Old English there are monophthongs and diphthongs. All OE

    vowels can be short and long.

    Short vowels a, x , e, o, u, y, a, ea, eo, ie, io

    Long vowels a, x , ё, о, u, у, й ;: ea, eo, ie, io


    The OE consonants included: labial sounds p, b, m, f, v:dental

    sounds t, d, p, 6, n, s, r, 1; velar sounds с, з , h.

    Some consonant letters denote different sounds in differentpositions.

  • The letteef, v, p, 6, s, z, denote voiced sounds between 2vowels

    (hlaford) and between a vowel and a voiced consonant(Wednesday). At

    the end and the beginning of words and between voicelessconsonants these

    letters denote voiceless consonants: wif, his, pis.

    The letter 3 denotes different sounds in differentpositions,

    1. Initially before consonants and before back vowels and after-n-

    it denotes [g] sod (good), sinsvan (sing)

    2. After back vowels and after 3 and r it denotes the velarvoiced

    fficative[y] da3 as (day), fol3 ian (follow)

    3. Initially before front vowels and after back vowels itdenotes

    the palatal voiced fricative [ j 1 ]: 3 iefan (give), wtes(way), зеаг


    4. сз denotes double g [ gg' ]: sec3an (say)

  • The most important phonetic changes in Old English

    The OE Breaking

    In OE short vowels a and e were diphthongized before certain

    consonant clusters ч>еа before “r” + consonant, “1” +consonant, “h” +

    consonant and before h in the final position,

    *aehta>eahta (eight), aeld>eald (old), e>eo before r +consonant, h +

    consonant, before 1c, Ih and h final: herte>hearte (heart),selh>seolh (seal).

    The phonemic essence of breaking is that the front vowel ispartially

    assimilated to the following hard consonant by forming a glidewhich

    combines with the vowel to form a diphthong,


    This type of change is caused by an i (or j) of the followingsyllable.

    The essence of this process - regressive assimilation,

    a> ,e * sandian>sendan (send)

    ae>e * taslian>tellan (tell)

    6>e * wopian>wepan (weep)

    u>y * fullian>fyllan (fill)

  • Lengthening of Vowels

    In OE vowels were lengthened before Id, nd, mb:cild>c!ld,

    climban>cirmban (climb).

    If the combination Id, nd, mb, was followed by anotherconsonant,

    lengthening does not take place cildru (children).

    Palatalization of Consonants

    The consonant c before a front vowel was palatalizes and

    approached the sound [t/] cild>cKTld.

    In a similar way sc became palatalized and approached[|]:scip>ship.

    Likewise 3 or сз changed into [d3]

    Ьгусз >bridge.


    Metathesis is a phonetic change which consists in two sounds

    changing their places: pridda>f)irda (third).

  • The sound n was lost before the fricatives h, f, s, p. Thepreceding

    vowel became lengthened.

    *fin£>fff (five)

    * 3ons> 30s (goose)


    Stress in OE mostly falls on the first syllable of a word: 'hlaford, cyning.

    Words beginning with a prefix have their stress on the rootsyllable:

    onfeinnan (begin).


    The Old English vocabulary consists mainly of native wordsand

    borrowed (loan) words.

    Native words include:

    1. Common Indo-European words which were inherited from theIndo-

    European parent language. For example:

    nouns: faedcr (father), modor (mother), nosu (nose), niht(night);

    adjectives: 1опз (long), neowe (new);

    verbs: sittan (sit), life an (lie), beon „standan (stand);

  • pronouns: pu (thou), ic (I);

    numerals: twa (two), eohte (eight);

    2. Common Germanic words. For example:

    nouns: land (land), sx (sea), sand (sand), hus (house),winter

    (winter), hand (hand);

    verbs: findian (find), sin3an (sing), seon (see), sprecan(speak);

    adjectives: grene (green), earm (poor), heah (high), bleo(blue);

    3. Specially English words, not found in any other languages.They

    are not numerous: clipian (call).

    Most often these are compound words.

    Wimman (woman) wtf (wife) + man (man);

    Hlaford (lord) hlaf (bread) + weard (ward);

    ealne we3 (always) eal (all) + we3 (way).

  • Wordbuilding

    Morphological word-building is subdivided into two types:

    affixation and composition.

    Examples of affixation: Ь'аНз (holy); on-3 innan (begin);cTld-had

    (сЫ1сМЦ; freandscipe (friendship);

    Examples of composition: goldsmif) (goldsmith); wnd-cQf)(well-



    In Old English there were Latin and Celtic borrowings.

    Latin borrowings

    Latin borrowings may be classified into two layers.

    The first layer

    The first layer is the oldest layer. The words o f this layerwere

    borrowed either directly from the Romans when the Anglo-Saxonslived in

    Europe (before they settled in Britain) or from Celticinhabitants of Britain.

    These borrowings include names of objects of material cultureand names of

    products which the Anglo-Saxons bought from Romans:

  • strict (street) from Latin strata Ivia (paved road)

    weal (wall) from Latin vallum

    myln (mill) from Latin molinum

    win (wine) from Latin vinum

    ciese (cheese) from Latin caseus

    buttere (butter) from Latin butyrum

    disc (dish) from Latin discus

    bete (beet) from Latin beta

    pere (pear) from Latin pirum

    plant (plant) from Latin planta

    The Latin noun castra (camp) made part of a number of namesof

    cities which were camps during the Roman conquest: Chester,Manchester,

    Winchester. The Latin portus (port) has been preserved in thenames

    Portsmouth, Bridport.

  • The Second Layer

    The second layer consists of religious terms. When Christianitywas

    introduced in England a certain number of Latin words wereborrowed from

    Latin into English:

    biscop (bishop) from Latin episcopus

    cleric (churchman) from Latin clericus

    apostol (apostle) from Latin appostolus

    candel (candle) from Latin candela

    scol (school) from Latin scola

    mae3ister (master) from Latin magister

    Celtic borrowings

    Celtic borrowings are few in number. The following examplesmay

    be given:

    dun (down) hill, fortress

    ¥crad'i(cradle) cradle

    Some Celtic elements have been preserved in geographicalnames:

    dun, dum (hill) in Dumbarton, Dumfries

    coil (forest) in Kilbrook, Killiemore.

  • G ram m atical Structure

    The noun

    The noun in OE has the morphological categories of case

    (Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative), number (singular,plural), and

    gender (masculine, feminine, neuter).

    The declension of the Nouns

    There are the following types of declension of the noun: nounswith

    vocalic stems (o-stems, а-stems, i-stems, u-stems), and nounswith consonant

    stems (-n-stems, -r-stems) and root stems declensions.

    Vocalic stems

    Nouns of -о -stems include masculine nouns and neuter nouns.The

    declension of the neuter nouns differs from the masculine nounsin the

    Nominative and Accusative plural. In the nominative case, pluralneuter

    nouns with a short root syllable have the ending -u , nouns witha long

    syllable (a long vowel + a consonant,ashort vowel+2 consonants)have a zero


  • Case Masculine

    Singular Plural

    Nom. hlaford hlafordas

    Gen. hlafordes hlaforda

    Dat. hlaforde hlafordum

    Acc. hlaford hlafordas

    Case Neuter

    Short syllable Long syllable

    Singular Plural Singular Plural

    Nom. Scip scipu land land

    Gen. Scipes scipa landes landa

    Dat. Scipe scipum lande landum

    Acc. Scip scipu land land

  • -a- stems include nouns of the feminine gender

    feder (перо) feather

    Case feminine

    Singular Plural

    Nom. feder federa

    Gen. federe federa

    Dat. federe federum

    Acc. federe federa


    These stems include masculine nouns, feminine nouns andneuter



    Case masculine

    Singular Plural

    Nom. wine wine

    Gen. wines winia

    Dat. wine winum

    Acc. wine wine

  • Case feminine

    Singular Plural

    Nom. died daede

    Gen. daede dSESdaDat. dasde daedumAcc. died daide

    died - (deed)


    This group of nouns includes nouns of masculine gender and ofthe

    feminine gender. The case ending o f these genders was thesame.

    Case masculine

    Singular Plural

    Nom. sunu sunu

    Gen. suna suna

    Dat. suna sunum

    Acc. sunu suna

  • Consonant stems include -n- stems, -r-stems, -s-stems.

    -n-stems (weak declination) include nouns of masculine,feminine

    and neuter genders.

    nama (name)

    Case masculine

    Singular Plural

    Nom. nama naman

    Gen. naman namena

    Dat. naman namum

    Acc. naman naman


    r-stems include a few masculine and feminine nouns denoting

    relationship: fasdtfr (father), modor (mother), dohtor(daughter), sweostor


  • Case masculine

    Singular Plural

    Nom. bropor bropor

    Gen. bropor bropora

    Dat. breper broporum

    Acc. bropor bropor


    These stems include nouns of the neuter gender. In all cases ofthe

    plural these nouns have an r-element

    cild (child)

    Case neutral

    Singular Plural

    Nom. cild cildru

    Gen. cildes cildra

    Dat. cilde cildrum

    Acc. cild cildru

  • Nouns belonging to root-stems never had any stem-forming

    suffixes, and the case endingj were added on immediately to theroot. There

    is mutation in the Dative case singular, the Nominative andaccusative cases

    plural of these nouns.

    mann (man)

    Case masculine

    Singular Plural

    Nom. mann men

    Gen. mannes manna

    Dat. menn mannum

    Acc. mann men

    In Old English root stems included such nouns as ffit (foot),top

    (tooth), gos (goose), mus (mouse), bok (book), hnutu (nut).

  • There are several types p f pronoun in Old English:personal,

    possessive, demonstrative, interrogative, definite, indefinite,negative and


    Personal PronounsThe pronouns of the first person have thecategories of case

    (nominative, Genitive, Dative and Accusative) and number(singular, dual,


    Personal pronouns of the third person have the categories ofcase,

    number, (singular and plural) and gender (masculine, feminineand neuter).

    Is' personCase Singular Dual Plural

    Nom. ic wit (two of us) we

    Gen. min uncer user

    Dat. mfc unc, uncit us

    Acc. me unc, uncit us

  • person^ n d

    Nom. pu 3 it (two of you) 36

    Gen. pm incer eower

    Dat. pe inc eow

    Acc. pe inc eow

    3d person


    Case masculine feminine neuter plural

    Nom. йё heo hit hie (hT)

    Gen. his hire his hiera (hyra)

    Dat. him hire him him

    Acc. Hine iiie hit hie (Kt)

  • Thefe are two demonstrative pronouns in OE: se (that) andpes

    (this). These pronouns have the categories of case, gender andnumber.

    Declension of the Demonstrative Pronouns.

    The Pronoun se


    Case masculine feminine neuter plural

    Nom. se seo p st pa

    Gen. paes piere paes para, раз

    Dat. p ржге paem paem,


    Acc. po/v pa paet pa

    Instr. py, pon - py, pon pa

    The Pronoun f>esSingular

    Case masculine feminine neuter plural

    Nom. pes peas, pios pis p^s

    Gen. pisses pisse pisses pissa

    Dat. pissum pisse pissum pissum

    Acc. pisne, pysne pds pis pas

    Instr. pys,pissi pysie

  • The Interrogative Pronouns

    The Interrogative pronouns in OE are hwa (who) and htvaet(what).

    They have four cases but only singular forms.

    Nom hwa

    Gen. hwffis

    Dat. hwaem

    Acc. hwone

    The Definite Pronouns

    The definite pronouns in OE are schwa (every), 3ehwilc(each),

    assher (either), aelc (each), swilc (such), se ilea (thesame).

    The Indefinite Pronouns

    The indefinite pronouns are sum (some) and aeni3 («n^)!

    The negative pronoun

    The negative pronouns are non and пгётз.

  • The adjectives in OE have the categories of gender(masculine,

    feminine and neuter), number (singular and plural) and case(nominative,

    genitive, dative, accusative and partly instrumental.

    Every adjective can have two declensions (strong and weak).Weak

    declension forms are used when the adjective is preceded by ademonstrative

    pronoun. They are associated with the meaning ofdefiniteness.

    Strong declension

    In strong declension most adjectives are declined as о-stems forthe

    masculine and neuter gender and а-stems for the femininegender.

  • blaec (black)


    Case Masculine Neuter Feminine

    Nom. blaec blaec blacu

    Gen. blaces blaces blaecre

    Dat. blacum blacum blaecre

    Acc. blaecne blaec blace

    Instr. blace blace -


    Case Masculine Feminine Neuter

    Nom. blace blacu blaca

    Gen. blacra blacra blacra

    Dat. blacrum blacrum blacrum

    Acc. blace blacu blaca

  • The weak declension of adjectives is similar to the declensionof

    nouns of the n-stems, except the genitive case of the pluralwhich often takes

    the ending-ra.


    Singular Plural

    Masculine Feminine Neuter

    Nom. blaca blace blaca blacan

    Gen. blacan blacan blaca blascra

    Dat. blacam blacan blacan blacum

    Acc. blacan blacan blace blacan

  • Adjectives in OE had three degrees of comparison: positive,comparative and

    superlative. They were formed by means of suffixes -ra,-ost.

    Positive comparative superlative

    3 laed 3 laedra glaedost

    There is mutation in the adjectives which have an -i- precedingthe

    -r- of the comparative degree and -ost of the superlativedegree.

    eald (old) ieldra ieldest

    Several adjectives have suppletive forms:

    3od (good) betera betst

    yfel (bad) wiersa wierest

    micel (large) mara maest

    lytel (little) laessa lsst

  • There were the following types of verbs in OE: strong verbs,weak

    verbs, preterite-present verbs and suppletive verbs.

    Strong verbs

    Strong verbs have four forms. The 1st form - the infinitive andthe

    present forms, the 2nd form - the past form singular. The 3dform - the past

    form plural, the 4th form - participle II.

    There are 7 classes of strong verbs, the first five classes(class I -

    class Y) were characterized by the gradation of i and a soundswhich is

    clearly seen in class 1, III. Class YI has the gradation of thesounds a-о, class

    Yll is characterized by redoublication of forms. In OE we findonly remnants

    of this redoublication.

  • Class I II III IY

    1 class writan (write) wrat writon writen

    2 class ceosan


    ceas curon coren

    3 class sin3an (sing) san3 sun3on випзеп

    4 class niman (take) nam.n^lH namon numen

    5 class cwe6an (say) cwaed cwaedon cweden

    6 class scacan


    scoc scocon scacen

    7 class hatan (name) heht, het hehton, heton haten

  • There are 3 classes of wefck verbs in OE, these verbs have 3forms:

    infinitive and present forms, the past form, participle II.

    Class I verbs always have mutation of their root vowel due to anoriginal -i-

    element in their suffix. There are two types of the verbs ofthis class: verbs

    with a long root vowel and verbs with a short root vowel.

    Verbs with the long root vowel always drop the -i- .

    I 11 III

    cepan (keep) cepte cept

    Verbs of the 2d class originally had the suffix -oja- in theinfinitive and -o- in

    the other forms. In OE -o- has been preserved in the past tenseand participle

    II and has been changed into -a- in some forms of the presenttense. The

    infinitive suffix -oja- has been reduced to -i-. The infinitiveof these verbs

    enfrin -ian.

  • I II HI

    macian macode macod

    The weak verbs of the third class are not numerous in number.They are

    characterized by the redoublication of the voiced consonant inthe 1 st form

    and a voiced fricative in the 2nd and 3d forms. In some of theseverbs we

    have mutation.

    I II III

    habban (have) hasfde haeft

    libban (live) lifde lifd

    Preterite- present verbs

    Preterite-present verbs in OE as well as in other Germaniclanguages have

    the following peculiarity: their present tense corresponds tothe past tense of

    the strong verbs and their past tense is formed as the pasttense of the weak


  • Infinitive Present




    Past Participle


    азап (own) аз азоп ahte азеп

    cunnan (can


    can cunnon сибе cunnen



    dear durron dorste -



    sceal sculon sceolde,





    таез таезоп meahte -



    mot moton rnTdste

  • Suppletive verbs forme, their forms from different roots. Thereare

    two suppletive verbs in OE: beon, wesan (be), зап (go).

    Grammatical Categories

    Verbs in OE have the grammatical categories of

    number - singular and plural

    person - the first, the second, the third

    tense - present and past

    mood - indicative and subjunctive

    voice - in the system of the participle

    The verb has 2 numbers singular and plural and three persons(the

    first person, the second person, the third person). In pluralnumber the verb

    has the same ending for all the persons: -af> in the PresentTense and -on in

    the Past Tense.

  • The category of tense is presented by 2 tenses present and past.There is no

    future tense in OE, the meaning of the future tense in OE wasexpressed by

    the Present Tense. In the category of mood there are two moods -Indicative

    and subjunctive. The subjunctive is often used in reportedspeech:

    He sasde pact past land sie swide 1апз norp |юпап... - онсказал, что та земля

    находится очень далеко на север оттуда

    sie - the subjunctive mood of the verb beon, wesan, 3d person,singular', the

    indicative mood of the verb beon, wesan in the 3d personsingular - is.

    The category of voice is found only in the participle.

  • Writan- strong cl. 1 (write)

    Present Tense

    Singular Plural

    1. write l.writap

    2. writest 2.wrrMp

    3. writep 3.wrTtap

    Past Tense

    Singular Plural

    1. wrat 1 .writon

    2. w rite '' 2. writon

    3. wrat 3. writon

  • Present tense

    Singular Plural

    1. cepe 1 .cepap

    2. cep(e)st 2. cepap

    3. cSp(e)3 3. cepap

    Past Tense

    Singular Plural

    1. cSpte 1. cepton

    2. cepest 2. cepton

    3. cepte 3. cepton

  • Syntax

    OE is characterized by direct word order:

    He sffide his hlafbrde...

    Он сказал своему господину...

    Hit is eal weste...

    Она вся пустынная...

    Indirect word order is to be found in sentences beginning withadverbial


    On feawum stowum wfcia5 Finnas...

    pa for he norpryhte...

    Тогда поехал он на север...

  • Negation was expressed by the negative word ne.

    Ne can i niht wrftan.

    Он не может ничего написать.


    1. Define to which layer of Latin borrowings the followingwords


    Pund (pound), biscop (bishop), plume (plum), pese (peas), preost(priest)

    piper (pepper), cuppe (cup), munic (monk).

    2. Define the word-building of the following words:

    unfriQ (war), steorbord, norpmann, saurian, swetnes, husbondamisfaran.

  • fisc о-stems masculine (fish)

    sceap - о-stems, neuter (sheep)

    hunto6 - о-stems, masculine (hunt)

    hund - о-stems, masculine (hound)

    middle - n-stems, feminine (middle)

    f8t - root-stems, masculine (foot)

    deor - о-stems, neuter (deer)

    bdc - root-stems, feminine (book)

    heorte - n-stems, feminine (heart)

    scip - о-stems, neuter (ship)

  • se wind (that wind)

    past land (that land)

    seo sae (that sea)


    pSs wind

    pis land

    peos sa?

    5. Give the forms of the following verbs:

    smocian (smoke) weak, 2 cl.

    smitan (smite) strong 1 cl.

    drincan (drink) strong, 3 cl.

  • dra3an (draw) strong, 6 cl.

    lofian (love) weak, 2 cl.

    6. Conjugate the following verbs in the Present and PastTenses

    locian (weak, 2 cl.)

    сбрап (weak, 1 cl.)

    wTcian (weak, 1 cl.)

    faran (strong, 6 cl)

    smttan (strong, 1 cl.)

    be-3 innan (strong, 3 cl.)

  • breaking - преломление

    conjugate - спрягать

    conjugation - спряжение

    decline - склонять

    declension - склонение

    dual number - двойственное число

    layer - слой

    loan words (borrowed words) - заимствованные слова

    mutation - палатализация, умлаут

    redouble - удвоить

    redoublication - удвоение

  • root - корень

    stem - основа

    vocalic stem. - гласная основа

    vowel interchange - чередование гласных

  • Analyze the following text in which Ohthere tells his kingAlfred

    about his first sea voyage

    Из рассказа Охтхере о его первом путешествии

    (Launderdale’cKaa рукопись)

    Ohthere saede his hlaforde /Flfrede суптзе, paet he earla

    Nordmonna norpmest bude. He cwasd paet he bude on paem lande

    norpweardum wip pa Westsae. He s id e peah paet past land sfeswipe 1апз

    norp ponanv ac hit is eal weste, buton on feawum stowumstycce-maelum

    wiciad Finnas, on huntode on wintra and on sumera on fiscape bepaere sae.

    Нё saede paet he aet sumum cirre wolde fandian hu 1опзе pastland norpryhte

    lasje oppe hwaeder aenij mon benorpan paem westenne bude. pa forhe

    norpryhte be paem lande; let him ealne we3 | p a t weste land ondast steor-

    bord, and pa wid-sae on dast baec-bord, prie dat3ais. pa wass heswa fear norp

    swa pa hwaelhuntan firrest farap. ba for he pa 3 iet norpryhteswa feor swa he

    meahte on paem oprum prim dasum 3esi3lan.

  • Example of the analys is:

    Oxthere - a noun, proper name, masculine, singular, thenominative case

    s£de - a weak verb, 3d class, Past Tense, 3d person, singularзаеззап, - sSde

    - saed (say)

    his - a personal pronoun, masculine, the possessive case,singular

    hlaforde - a noun, о-stems, masculine, Dat. case, singular* Nom.case hlaford


    jElffgde - a noun, proper name, masculine,

    суптзе - a noun, о-stems, masculine, Dat. Case, singular(king)

    {jaet - a conjunction (that)

    he - personal pronoun, 3d person, masculine, Nom. Case, singular(he)

    ealra - a pronoun, plural, the poss,case (all)

    пофтаппа - a noun, root-stems, Poss.case, plural

    norpmest - an adverb

    biide - an irregular verb, third person, Past Tense, singular,infinitive - buan,

    past - bude, part. II - зеЬип, bud.

  • He cw®5 paet he bude on paem lande norpweardum wip paWests®.

    He - personal pronoun, 3d person, singular, masculine, Nom. case(he)

    cwae9 - a strong verb, class 5, Past Tense, 3d personsingular

    cwae3an-cwae6 - cwaedon - cweden (say)

    p®t - a conjunction (that)

    he - personal pronoun, 3d person, masculine, Nom. Case, singular(he)

    bude - an irregular verb, 3d person, Past Tense, singular, buan- bude -

    зеЫГп, bdd

    on - preposition

    p$m - a demonstrative pronoun, neuter, the Dative case, singular(that)

    lande - a noun . о-stems with a long root-stem, neuter,singular, the Dat. case

    norpweardum - an adjective, the Dat. Case. Singular, neuter(northward)

    wip - a preposition

    pa - a demonstrative pronoun, feminine, singular, the accusativecase

    Wests# - a noun, feminine, i-stem, singular, the accusativecase

    s® (sea), Wests® - the Atlantic ocean

  • Words which may be found useful for your analysis ofthetext:

    Sentence 2

    peah - an adverb (though)

    sie - a verb (to be), the suppositional mood

    swTpe - an adverb (very)

    1апз - an adjective. Ьапз, 1епза, lensest (long)

    ponan - an adverb (thence)

    north - an adverb

    ac - conjunction (but)

    h it - a personal pronoun

    weste - an adjective (пустынный)

    buton - conjunction (but)

  • stycce - maelum - an adverb (here and there)

    wfcian - a verb, weak, cl.l (live)

    h u n to 6 - a n o u n , о - s te m s , m a sc u lin e (h u nt)

    fiscad - a noun, о-stems, masculine(fishing)

    be - preposition

    pare - demonstrative pronoun

    s2E - a noun, feminine, i-stems

    sentence 4

    cir - i-stems, masculine (time)

    fandian - a verb, weak, cl.2 (to find)

    hu - an adverb (how)

    1опде - an adverb(far)

  • Нсзап - a verb, strong, cl. 5

    hwaeSer - a pronoun, an adverb, a conjunction (whether)

    benordan - a preposition (to the north)

    westenne - a noun, jo -stems, neuter (пустынная, дикаяместность)

    pa - an adverb (then)

    faran - a verb, strong, cl. 6

    steorbord - a noun, о-stems, masculine, (starboard)

    swa - an adverb, a conjunction (so)

    feor - an adverb, an adjective (far)

    fepr - firra - fyrrest (firrest)

    hwaelhunta - a noun, n-stems, masculine (охотник за китами)

  • Bibliography

    Алексеева Л.С. Древнеанглийский язык. М., 1964.Аракин В.Д.Очерки по истории английского языка. М., 1955. Бруннер К. Историяанглийского языка. Т. I. М., 1955; Т. II.

    М., 1956.М атвеева Е.А. История английского языка. М.,2004.Плоткин В.Я. Динамика английской фонологической системы.

    Новосибирск, 1967.Смирницкий А.И. Древнеанглийский язык. М.,1955. Смирницкий А.И. Хрестоматия по истории английского

    языка. Изд-е 3-е. М., 1953.Ярцева В.Н. Историческая морфологияанглийского языка.

    М.-Л., 1960.Ярцева В.Н. Исторический синтаксис английскогоязыка. М,-

    Л., 1961.Ярцева В.Н. Развитие национального литературногоязыка.

    М., 1969.Iyish В. A. History o f the English Language. Л.,1973.Jespersen O. Growth and structure o f the EnglishLanguage.

    Leipzig, 1938.Rastorgueva T.A. History o f the English Language.M., 1969.Wyld H.C.A. History o f Modern Colloquial English. Oxford,1953.

  • Contents:Introduction....................................................................................3Phoneticstructure.........................................................................3Vocabulary....................................................................................7Grammaticalstructure...................................................................12


    Syntax.............................................................................................36Exercises...........................................;............................................37Some words to helpyou...............................................................41Analysethe following Old Englishtext........................................43Words which may befound useful for your analyses................46Bibliography...................................................................................49Contents..........................................................................................50

  • ПРИГОРОВСКАЯ Татьяна Михайловна

    H istory o f the English Language OLD EN G LISH

    Методические указания для студентов специальности «Перевод ипереводоведение»

    П одписано в печать 13.09.05. Ф ормат 6 0 x 8 4 /1 6 . Тираж 100экз.Усл.-печ. л. - 3 ,25 . И зд. № 334-05 .З а к а з- 5 1 0 .

    127994, Москва, ул. Образцова, 15. Типография МИИТа


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